br A br Particle size nm br
Particle size (nm)
Zeta potential (mV)
Fig. 3. Encapsulation eﬃciency of resveratrol liposomes.
DNA-binding ability of liposomes enhanced with the increase of N/P weight ratios. CDOR5, CDOR10, CDOR20, CDOR100 and CDOR200 retarded plasmid DNA completely at the N/P weight ratios of 3/1, 1/1, 3/1, 4/1 and 2/1, respectively. The low N/P weight ratios of resveratrol liposomes for retardation may reduce its dose required to obtain great transfection eﬃciency, and improve the safety of the vector itself to normal tissues and organs. So they were promising for being ideal carriers to deliver gene therapy agents into cells, the liposomes/DNA lipoplexes ensured the entry of pDNA into Doxorubicin and avoid degradation of DNA by DNase.
3.4. In vitro pDNA transfection
The transfection eﬃciency of CDOB/pGFP-N1 lipoplexes and CDOR/pGFP-N1 lipoplexes was investigated through the detection of GFP expression (Fig. 4 and Fig. 5). The transfection eﬃciency increased with the increase of the N/P ratios, as the net positive charge on the lipoplexes also increased, leading to lipoplexes internalization more easily by fusion with the negatively charged cell membrane . The highest transfection eﬃciency of all the lipoplexes was achieved at the Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology 51 (2019) 746–753
N/P ratio of 3/1 in Hela cells and MCF-7 cells, whereas higher N/P ratios led to lower trasnfection eﬃciency due to strong DNA-binding capacity of liposomes. It indicated that optimal positive charge and appropriate DNA-binding capacity helped the lipoplexes enter into cells, and then released DNA. The expression of GFP mediated by CDOR exhibited comparable trasnfection eﬃciency with CDOB and commer-cial reagents Lipofectamine 2000 and DOTAP. The results demonstrated that the addition of resveratrol had no eﬀect on transfection eﬃciency of the blank liposome. Otherwise, the lipoplexes exhibited greater transfection eﬃciency against Hela cells than against MCF-7 cells as they may have selectivity for certain cells in terms of transfection.
Cationic liposomes are mostly utilized as gene carriers for plasmid DNA (pDNA) [35,36], antisense oligonucleotides  or small inter-fering RNA (siRNA) [38,39]. Through the above experiments, the li-posomes with the tri-peptide headgroups could combine with the plasmid DNA, and then the lipoplexes destabilized the endosomal membrane, resulting in a flip-flop reorganization of phospholipids. These phospholipids then diﬀused into the lipoplex and interacted with the cationic lipids causing the DNA to dissociate into the cytoplasm for the subsequent transcription [40,41]. In brief, resveratrol liposomes showed great ability for delivering genes and exhibited good perspec-tive in the field of anti-cancer drug delivery.
3.5. In vitro cell proliferation inhibition
MTT assay is widely used to assess the growth inhibitory eﬀects of drugs on primary patient cells or cell lines, so the cytotoxicity of re-sveratrol and p53 gene against MCF-7 and Hela cells were determined by this assay. Fig. 6 showed that the cells treated with the blank lipo-some showed comparable cell viability (> 90%) with Lipofectamine 2000 and DOTAP, and the cells treated with resveratrol liposomes showed slightly lower cell viability compared with that of blank lipo-some. The cells treated with CDOR20/p53 lipoplexes exhibited stronger tumor growth inhibition eﬀect than that of resveratrol with the relative cell viability 56.5%–70.5% (Fig. 6B). It illustrated that resveratrol and p53 gene showed synergistic eﬀect on cells growth inhibition. The anti-tumor eﬀect of resveratrol liposmes and lipoplexes against MCF-7 cells were better than against Hela cells. Studies have shown that Hela cells expressed lower level of wide-type p53 proteins compared with MCF-7 cells [42,43], thus resveratrol liposomes exhibited better cell pro-liferation inhibition against MCF-7 cells due to additionally synergistic eﬀect of reveratrol and wide-type p53 proteins. Otherwise, higher cy-totoxicity of resveratrol liposomes against MCF-7 cells induce more cell